today is the bittersweet 15th anniversary of nasa\'s opportunity rover landing on mars
Despite a series of huge failures in performing tasksto-
Before the arrival of Mars, the joint success of the Mars Pathfinder mission and the newly developed giant airbag system gave scientists great hope that this new generation of rover will achieve unprecedented success.
15 years later, in terms of robotic missions, we can look back at the opportunity of Mars as an unparalleled victory in science and engineering.
Although its solar panels were irretrievably covered in dust during last year\'s storm, this opportunity lasted more than 14 years after being designed for the post-90 s.
The day mission is perhaps the most inspiring example of planetary science and exploration since the Apollo program.
Mars is very, very different from Earth in many important aspects, which pose some unique challenges.
Yes, it\'s red, not blue, and it\'s getting smaller and smaller, but it has the following features, which is an incredible challenge for landing: all of this means it\'s very dangerous.
But the solution to the airbag is clever, because even if the rover enters at a weight of 180 kg (400 pounds)
, The terminal speed of the inflatable airbag should be slow enough so that it can survive the impact.
On January of 2004, the opportunity and its twin Spirit successfully landed on Mars, deployed and started their journey through the surface of our neighbor.
They were originally 90-
The journey of the day, but was deliberatelyengineered.
After all, the rover from Mars Pathfinder Sojourner is only a 7-
The task of one day may be extended to 30 days, but it has lived for 80 daysthree days.
Why can\'t these Mars probes do better?
They are bigger and stronger, they have more powerful solar panels, they have 7 years of technological development advantage.
The opportunity was designed for the post-90 s.
Tasks of the day and 2.
The wheel turns 5 million laps by its on-
Solar panels (during the day)
And the battery at night.
Only time can tell us how the opportunity will eventually perform.
After more than 5,000 days, a total of 45 kilometers, the wheel turned more than 90 million laps, and it is commendable that the Opportunity found many life cycles on Mars.
The panorama above is displayed in two real colors (top)
And fake color (bottom)
To highlight the different features of the terrain, this is just one of the countless images in this memorable mission.
The 7 th anniversary of the Curiosity probe on Mars is coming, and it may make today\'s breakthrough discoveries on the surface of the red planet, opportunity still holds records that are unlikely to be broken in the short term, including any human distance record
Make equipment on the surface of another world.
At 2015, it became the first vehicle to pass through 26. 2 miles—
Or marathon distance
On another planet.
Although the death has not yet been officially announced, there is little chance of recovery.
Its legacy is more than just longevity and perseverance, though these are of course an important part of the story.
It also proves the ingenuity of human beings, the clever techniques and strategies to keep it running, and the lucky beneficiaries of many cleaning activities, the strong winds that blow away the dust piled up on solar panels, extend the life of solar panels.
Many hope that this event will happen again, because in some cases it is possible to revive the rover.
Most importantly, however, the opportunity should be remembered, as it brings us a series of discoveries about the surface of Mars and our new understanding of the terrain of Mars.
Here are some of its top highlights.
It found the first meteorite. an iron-
On the surface of another world
In fact, it shows that these meteorites exhibit the same surface features as the wind blows sand on the iron
Nickel meteorites found in the desert on Earth.
This is exactly what you expect to find on Mars, whose environment is very similar to the dry and desolate desert on Earth.
Since the Eagle Crater on Mars began its journey in 2004, the opportunity has gone unprecedented to some spectacular places, including the Endurance Crater, where the opportunity was able to arrive for the first time, look at some of the deposited history on the surface of Mars.
The hills and cliffs inside this crater are so steep that they reveal the geological history of Mars.
This is actually the case of a large number of Martian craters, as shown in a photo of the Burns Cliff.
It also visited a series of other interesting features, including the beautiful elipas crater, which shows unusual features called \"Payson ridge\" in the photo.
More than ten years after it was discovered, we still did not find the exact origin of this ridge.
The Victoria Crater also stopped the opportunity.
The specified color is shown here-
It looks like it might be outside of a scene on Earth!
Below you can see one of its many outsourcers: Cape St. Vincent.
In the area around the Victoria Crater, as well as in a number of other places, Opportunity has found \"Mars Blueberry\" or hematite balls that appear to be evidence of past water on Mars.
You may see these areas and immediately think of a variety of non-water-
In fact, it can be imagined that they may have been produced through some other geological processes that are isolated.
But how do you explain that we found some of them coming together?
Aside from the watery past on the surface of Mars, this is not a viable explanation for the present.
After visiting the Victoria crater, decided to have the opportunity to run the first Marshalf-
For the marathon, head to the giant Endeavor Crater, although its solar panels can only run 50% because of years of dust from Mars.
You have to keep in mind that after a few years on a dusty surface and a completely dry atmosphere, the opportunity is not at all prepared to deal with the accumulation of substances that block sunlight.
But part of the reason why the opportunity lasts so long is that it\'s lucky.
Whether it\'s the first or the last time, in 2009, a simple gust appeared, partially clearing the panel, give the same name Rover the opportunity to complete the spectacular journey in less time than anyone expected: just three years!
This is a rover.
Vision of the journey.
On 2012, in the winter of Mars, the opportunity to shoot the most spectacular panoramic view of the whole journey: 817-image-
A synthetic material of Greeley Haiwen.
Its own orbit is visible on the left side of the foreground.
Greeley Haven is very close to the destination of Endeavor Crater, a special place for many reasons.
First of all, it is the largest crater visited by Rover or lander in another world, even at present.
On the other hand, the forge ahead crater tour marks another world\'s longest journey from source to destination.
But perhaps my favorite trivia is that the names of some notable features along the way have a clear meaning, and for any space exploration enthusiast, the meaning is like a little Easter egg.
There is a crater marked Lunokhod 2 above, named after the Soviet lunar rover, which was previously recorded
A support for crossing distance beyond Earth.
This crater is so named because the opportunity is linked to its records when it arrives.
The Marathon Valley, which arrived in 2014, marks the first time a car in another world has passed 26.
2 mile mark: a complete marathon we know on Earth.
In hindsight, the demise of opportunity can be avoided.
If an additional piece of equipment is installed, such as a compressed air blower on the robot\'s arm, the dusty solar panels may be cleaned at will.
In order to survive the sandstorm, even if it is a storm that blocks 100% light, it will not be catastrophic as long as enough power is stored in the rover\'s battery to control and operate the blower mechanism.
If this were done, the spirit could have saved itself from the fate of 2010, and the opportunity would not have suffered 2018 of death.
Although it seems to be 20/20 afterwards, it is difficult to feel sorry for two tasks that exceed anyone\'s expectations.
Happy anniversary, opportunity.
While no one is expecting your return, you exceed everyone\'s expectations.
Mars and Earth are all richer because of what you bring us. Today, after 15 years on Mars, we celebrate you.